A decade later, his nephew, Koloman, managed to become king of Dalmatia and Croatia under unclear circumstances. Mostly brief overviews of political history, these had to serve several purposes. Monarchs were maintained with the only intent of providing a formal legitimacy for the power gained by one or the other among the aristocratic groups. Money was collected to erect a monument in the main square of Zagreb, the first of its kind in Croatia, and images of Jelacic became broadly distributed. Strategia, economia, societd e cultura nelle relazioni politiche fra Roma, la Giudea e I’Iran. Mar about the ‘Yaphetic’ linguistic community, proclaimed that even the ancient Thracians and Illyrians were Proto-Slavs, thus giving a new impetus to the autochthonic views. There follow a number of satraps of Sophene, some of whose names are completely lost, and on the thirteenth stele upright 8 Goell , p.

Many authors started to deny completely the supposed Turkic origin of the Bulgars, emphasizing their probable Iranian Aryan roots. Thus, a comparative study of a number of paradigms frequently encountered in this type of publications would 1 Habermas The recent proliferation of myths Introduction 11 about the origins of the Bulgarian people can be read as an effort to reconstitute national identity on different bases in the new European context. These theories included the most extravagant opinions, especially in the field of history. Eastern Orthodox, Slavonic liturgy, trying to detach Croatia from the Catholic West to which it naturally belonged. He lived long enough to be drawn into the conflict between Caesar and Pompey.

The East and West Terrace courts are adorned with limestone colossi m. Goldstein ; Rokay ; Bratulic It must mean, therefore, that he simply did not consider it important to remind his audience of the artistic tradition of his ancestral domain. His descendants lived in wealth and honour, well integrated in the Roman aristocracy. In his left hand the king carries a long sceptre, an ancient Indo-European symbol of royalty, present both in Achaemenid imagery, and in Greek representations of kings and gods – Zeus in particular.

Sofia, reprint of the first xerie of Praotechestvoto I praezikyt na bylgarite: The recent proliferation of myths Introduction 11 about the origins of the Bulgarian people can be read as an effort to reconstitute national identity on different bases in the new European context.

They also justify the claim to certain rights, political or territorial. This implies that at some point it was not part of Europe, and we can safely guess that it is the Yugoslav period they have in mind, because they equate Yugoslavia with the Balkans, and the Balkans are not – as is generally known – part of Europe.

Constructing and projecting the dynastic image As often happens in politics, merely generating a set of ideas or representations is never enough.

Persian policy and royal decisions were, in the eyes of the Greeks, strongly influenced by palace intrigues. In Gebrauch und Missbrauch des Mittelalters, In parallel with the scientific discussion on these issues, there emerged some extreme views, often with political agendas in mind, taking their final form in the activities of certain Internet forums, nationalist organizations and ‘parahistory’ groups.

Man vs Wild : Bear Grylls est mort – le point sur la rumeur – Guide de survie

By that time, the fierce and dreadful warrior who had previously fought at Mohacs and Vienna, the gates of Western world, and had threatened to conquer all of Christian Europe, had come to be perceived as a weak and indolent old man, slowly progressing towards the inevitable end. A possible solution has been put forward by Tarn,9 who, while trying to find the propagandistic fundament for the Alexander connection claimed by the Bactrian king Agathocles in his ‘pedigree’ coinage, suggests there may have existed a legend which made Apama, Seleukos I’s wife, into the daughter of Alexander and Rhoxane.


Even though many of the accounts Herodotus records had no historical foundation,5 they were used by later authors to prove the superiority of the Greek world in comparison to the Oriental one, particularly underlining the fact that the democratic solution – the most original contribution to world politics made by the Hellenic culture – was the best and most successful form of government, standing in stark contrast with the despotism of the Eastern monarchs.

Dialogues d’histoire ancienne 19 Cyril and Methodius and the process of Christianization in medieval Bulgaria. Many medievalists considered the latter to be the genuine Croatian national myth, and gave it priority over the former version which, they argued, must have been invented by Constantine himself in order to claim the right of Byzantine suzerainty over the Croats, since they ruled their land by the will of a Byzantine emperor.

Antiochos was to suffer one more siege, led by Antony, but this was short and was ended with promises of future loyalty and hefty bribes. A state ruled by women instead of men, the Greeks reasoned, could not be a healthy state.

Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 11 Fighting an Ever Dying Enemy 33 ‘The barbarians received him joyfully, as is usual with new rulers. Actteurs repeating a myth, some communities believed that they invoked the presence of the heroes or recreated the primordial act of creation.

Modern literature Facella, Margherita.

He fiercely attacked the views of Krystevich, proving that modern Bulgarians were Slavs, whose ancestors migrated to the Balkans during the late Antiquity from modern Russia thus being closely related to the Russians.

Its style is purely Greek, with no trace of his ancestor’s syncretistic taste in art. Caesar in the East, Thesis Ph. The king is portrayed as an equal of the gods, both on the great East and West terraces and on the bas-reliefs lined next to the colossal sculptures.

His main point was that, despite the fact that modern Bulgarians belong to the Slavic linguistic community, their ancestors were a ‘Turko-Tatar’ people.

Not long afterwards, however, the same Antiochos would be besieged by Pompeius, who was determined to mould the region according to his vision of an Eastern frontier safeguarded against the Parthian threat. Kallinikos is honoured throughout the Nemrud Dagi complex, as the father of Antiochos I Theos, and it is with him that the list of paternal ancestors ends. The issue of the Proto-Bulgarians continued to be a subject of contention after the liberation of the country from the Ottoman rule.


Proceedings of an international conference in honour of Professor J. In the post-war period, the myth, it seems, lost its practical value, but that does not mean that it will be forgotten forever. History and Myth in the Romanian Consciousness. He lived long enough to be drawn into the conflict between Caesar and Pompey.

Images of Women in Greek Historiography on Persia’, in: Their comparison will, I believe, yield interesting conclusions about how a dynasty made and transformed its identity in the course of time. Neither Ap- pian, nor Plutarch, in their accounts of Lucullus’ crossing of the Euphrates mention any such military exploit and emphasise, in- stead, the speed with which he headed towards Armenia, all the more so as, Appian observes, ‘the locals had no intention to fight or suffer any damage, waiting rather for Lucullus and Tigranes to solve their dispute amongst themselves’ App.

His nephew Philopappos, for example, would live to be consul under the rule of Trajan and would commemorate his activity in another crucial monument for this paper, his grandiose tomb in Athens.

Curiosit├ęs Infernales by P. L. Jacob

Croatia Between the Myths of the Nation State and of the Common European Past Neven Budak University of Zagreb Abstract Throughout the history of Croatia, myths have been instrumental in forging a sense of identity and in justifying political positions. However, academic scruples alone could hardly motivate a royal scion to contradict the official story, inscribed in stone with complete confidence by one of his ancestors. Fighting an Ever Dying Enemy 27 the administrative facade’. Phe Constitution of the Republic of Croatia consolidated text.

It was a period of instability caused by the ambitions of the Angevin kings to impose their authority on the Croatian lords who, for some time, have ruled Croatia and Dalmatia almost independently of the waning power of the Arpadian dynasty. Nevertheless, a set of symbols, based on the Pre-Romanesque pattern of interlacing ribbons, came to be seen as a Croatian logo alongside the chequered red-and-white coat of arms, globally known because of the successes of the national football team.

The papers delivered at the conference Myth-Making and Myth-Breaking in History and the Humanities have used the myth as a pretext to discuss not only its functions in the lives of communities, but also the role of historians and of humanities scholars in elaborating meta-discourses: There were also myths with a more pronounced social character, although they too included nationalist elements.

While for the Croatians the myth was an expression of resistance to Serbian dominance in the newly formed Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, for the Serbian royal dynasty and its supporters it represented a symbol of Serbian-Croatian unity this was based on Tomislav’s support for the Serbs in their fight against the Bulgarians.