The Series could not function without the generous professional advice provided by many anonymous readers. Calalai not do have the degree of economic and social power calabai have. Likened by some in shape to a Freudian doodle, the island of Sulawesi spreads its tentacles between Borneo to the west, Maluku to the east, the Philippines to the north, and Flores to the south. While my analyses have been generally affirmed, I certainly cannot claim to speak for a majority of Bugis. Moreover, in mixed groups men were more likely to offer comment on matters of gender than were women. While there is no general agreement in Thailand on how many phet now exist e. Not all people are similarly subjected to and involved in globalisation processes.

In a similar sense, calalai, calabai and bissu also operate to highlight ideal gender types by bringing the latter into sharp relief and thus shoring up the dominant gender ideals. This phase also involves looking at what kind of beliefs are associated with, and are necessary for formulations of, two-spirit people gender categories. As such, by Stein In the performance of these myriad roles women have forged new and modern gendered identities that are recognisably global and local. If they are more feminine than women but they have same-sex desires, is it accurate to represent their position as being closer to the masculine end than heterosexual women? Hijra performance, therefore, does not attempt a realistic imitation of women but rather a burlesque Nanda,

Viewing gender identity as contingent, variable and positioned by discursive structures, instead of as a permanent property of an individual, provides a theoretical framework for appreciating gendered subject positions as being produced and constrained by, and defying, normative gender models.

I always admired men more you know, but just to 2 at. So I guess it must be half and half, both factors have to be there. My retort that I feel quite safe in Indonesia and probably had a greater chance of misshape on the way to Auckland airport than of being caught up in a terrorist bombing did not seem to quell her fears.


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Danau Tempe is a shallow lake fridged by beautiful wetlands that provide sanctuary for many types of birdlife. Besnier also makes the point that gender liminal people in the Pacific help reproduce heteronormativity; their role operates to cement rather than undermine dominant gender models. Moreover, biological sex was thought askti determine personality and character e.

Sexuality, Islam and Queer Selves. Another problem Epple poses is that using the term two-spirit presupposes what masculinity and femininity are, and that these are cakdp across all times and places. As we will see in the next section, aspects of religion and a sense of self combine with these factors in Bugis understandings of gender.

Puang Sulai, a noble man, similarly reveals how calabai combine behaviours: Indeed, their name is waria, right, woman along with man memang namanya waria toh, wanita sama pria. The ethnographic material presented in this cak has been collected over a period of two years spent in Indonesia, primarily in Szkti Sulawesi, spread between andwith the most sustained period of fieldwork being twelve months between and Haji Mappaganti further reveals below how important sexuality can be in confirming gender identity: While their sex organ kelamin is female, inside they are not like other women.

I also use the term androgynous in respect to bissu. Linking her identity with epieode ethnic group remained important eventhough it was not tangibly linked to location cf. Transgender may imply a crossing from one reified normative gender to the other.

While located less than two hundred kilometres from the capital, the mountainous cakee terrain means the journey rarely takes less than five hours by car.


As a result of this thinking, the notion of being caught in the wrong body does not helpfully extrapolate gender variance in Bugis South Sulawesi.

It was just plain. One reason Nanda is able to make this argument stems from Indian understandings of individual identity.

For instance, one friend in Sulawesi has been covertly seeing a young man of Chinese decent for the last five years. Moreover, the ready accessibility of video compact disks enables wide accesses to foreign films and music. In this book I also refer to lines, which is a term used in urban centres to refer to the femme partners of calalai, although in more rural settings such partners are simply referred to as perempuan or wanita woman or makkkunrai B woman.

Moreover, the experiences of female-bodied individuals who do not identify as women are rarely mentioned. The island is the eleventh largest in the world and it is home to around fifteen million people speaking over fifty different languages.

Manusia Harimau – Episode 97

Bornstein, ; Califia, ; Cromwell, ; Feinberg, ; J. Then there are two types of woman: Green, ; Halberstam, ; ; C. I was treated like a son since I was born.

In turn, this enables analysis of how alternative gender positions are developed, which is particularly useful in respect to calalai, calabai, and bissu as these latter subject positions do not result from individuals crossing from one normative gender caks the other.

In almost all ways lines conform to ideal notions of womanhood; they dress and act in feminine ways. Soon two middle-aged men entered and sat opposite me. A sworn-virgin may even be given equal rights to a man.