Introduction 17 sutra, Suprabheda, Ratnatr ay aparlksaT and, with attribution, from the Nyaydmrta, Matahgaparamesvara , Vayavyasamhita, Mrgendra and Siddhantasardvall. It may be objected that since ciUakti cannot conjoin with objects by itself due to obstruction by mala , its contact with objects requires some other means. According to the Pauskara, the five elements bhuta merge into the subtle elements tanmatra during the dissolu- tion: Umapati explains that since the cit-sakti of the released self is free from mala-obstruction, it perceives itself and others without the help of the senses, mind, etc. Fallacious reasons are classified into five by the Pauskara: This being the case, caksurddi , the sense of sight, etc.
Umapati specifies that the subtle elements merge into the egoity predominated by tamos, the senses of action karmendriya into the egoity predominated by rajas and the senses of knowledge jnanendriya and manas into the egoity predominated by sattva. Istartha is that where the thing which is desired, that is, wished to be proved, is found; thus the desired thing is the subject paksa and the declaration of this is pratijhd. Therefore, there is no obstacle to the acceptance of anyathdkhydti. Some others namely, the Bhattas believe that although absence is a distinct category, it is not perceived but known through a specific pramana named non-apprehension anupalabdhi. Some passages of the Pauskarabhasya are very similar to, and sometimes identical with, several passages of the Siva- jhdnabodhavistarabhdsya 5 and the Saivaparibhdsd. The style and argumenta- tion of this commentary on the chapter on epistemology pramanapatala prove that its author was acquainted with the method and technical terminology of navyanyaya developed by Gangesa A. Moreover, it is not an indispensable means to all cognitions since vidya, and not the intellect, is the instrument that cognizes the function of the intellect.
See Nydyasiddhantamuktavalip. However, all the five verses arc found in two other incomplete manuscripts of the Pauskarabhasya: The style and argumenta- tion of this commentary on the chapter on epistemology pramanapatala prove that its author was acquainted with the method and technical rpisode of navyanyaya developed by Gangesa A.
Translation 85 which gives rise to inference prevails over that of the extra- ordinary perception. Therefore, a classification is announced beforehand to ward off this doubt and to indicate that inference, etc. Since the sense of.
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According to Umapati, it is twofold: T abodhasvabhava samagri pramanam. He rejects the definitions of validity based on 1 Pauskara 1.
Thus, since the designation of pramana would apply to all of them, it would not be possible to distinguish the knower from the known and so on. Thus, the overpervasion of the definition of pramana proposed by the opponent is con- firmed. See Manameyodayapp.
According to him, hypothetical argument tarka is a kind of error. The distinction of absence into four kinds, as prior-absence prdgabhavaetc. For, when the substantive dharmin is cognized, its validity also is cognized; and if the cognition of the substantivedharmijnana does not arise that is to say, if the substantive is not knowndoubt also would not arise since the cause which gives rise to doubt does not exist; and if the primary cognition as qualified by its attribute.
The sense connects with objects in this type of percep- tion, but the mind, which focuses attention on a particular object and identifies the determining factors, does not yet function; hence the perception is indeterminate. The Pauskara is also remarkable from the point of view of epistemology because it reflects the state of several logical concepts before they became fixed under the influence of different systematized philo- sophical schools.
Full text of “tantra-sangrahaH”
Umapati explains that the senses of cognition episodf the function of the cognitive capacity while the senses of action help the function of the conative capacity of the self. Only the sakala, whose beginningless natural mala attracts further bondage pdsa consisting of kald, etc. According to the Pauskara, time-lapsed kdldilta occurs when a reason is attributed to a subject paksa which is contradicted by a pramana. But the successively inferior statements are set aside by the successively superior 73 b See Mimamsdkutuhalapp.
Therefore, the presence of five members in an inference is justified.
This also proves that it namely the cognition of absence is brought about by the senses, for an effect is never vitiated by a defect which does not belong to the cause. Producing the state of being an object of cognition pra – meyabhavaetc.
Therefore anyathdkhydti only should be admitted. For example, in the perception of a piece of shell as silver, the person desirous of silver cognizes the shell in its general form, that is to say as brilliant, etc. In this context, he discusses the cognition of absence which is a determinate cognition qualified by absence abhavavisista-jnana.
According to Umapati, deviating reason which he calls sa- vyabhicara is three-fold: Yet, it cannot be considered to be pramana in the Saiva doctrine because it too becomes an object of cognition for the self.
Also, there is no evidence to prove the existence of an earlier commentary. And dajvikam presence of the word is only in the form of memory, for it cannot be in any other form.
Yatsiddhau, by the manifest- ation of which, by the manifestation of cit-sakti only; idamah, all this, true cognition of objects of knowledge such as sound arises; asiddhaunon-manifestation, by the non-manifestation of which, namely of cit-sakti; na kimcana, nothing, nothing of objects like sound, is known. Anyatha- jhanam, otherwise-cognition, cognition possessing a qualifier which is different from that possessed by its substantive.
Thus, due to the predicament faced by you, it 2111 be held that the cognition of substantive is not the cause of daiviksm cognitionand this is favourable to our position.