I would also like to thank my wife Jihye Violet Song for encouraging me to finish this doctoral thesis. A total of surveys were distributed with given to santri at Pesantren Sunan Drajat and at Pesantren Karangasem. I would read all the above publications when I could obtain a copy. In , PAN captured 7. It covers beliefs, values, and traditional Islamic customs, including how Kyai Ghofur ritualises social habits to shape the culture of his pesantren. However, the development of politics in Indonesia remains on-going, with a multiparty system, random coalitions, a lack of party loyalty, combined with political disunity amongst kyai, such factors have complicated predictions and generalisations. The political field is the social area in which actors operate and struggle to pursue desired objectives Bourdieu

Pesantren and Affiliated Organisations In , records regarding religious parent organisation for pesantren are as follows: Although members of NU and Muhammadiyah should not be assumed as automatic supporters of political Islam, their worldview and moral values are influenced by these organisations, particularly those who have studied at their educational institutions. To describe the loci of the process of socialisation of santri in specific religious values, the term santri habitus was developed. It can be linked to ethnic identity, particularly for minority groups. The Middle East is the proverbial core of Islam, privileged with Muslim history and Arabicspeaking citizens. Jadi negara tidak memberikan peluang untuk menodai agama lain.

Fadeli Lamongan bupati Research was conducted at two case study pesantren, namely Pesantren Sunan Drajat which is affiliated to NU and Pesantren Karangasem associated with Muhammadiyah. I also greatly appreciated Professor Merle Ricklefs for critiquing my survey questionnaire and for reading over my draft PhD.

In the pesantren system, respect hormat is a principal element of this symbolic capital. While conducting research there I was privileged with invitations to meet Muhammadiyah Jan, Din Syamsuddin, the district head of Lamongan, Masfuk, the rector of the Muhammadiyah University of Gresik and later district head of Bojonegoro, Suyoto, Muhammadiyah head of junior and senior high schools in East Java, Imam Robandi, former Muhammadiyah Chairman of Lamongan, Afnan Ashori, and other senior Muhammadiyah members throughout East Java.

See theoretical discussion in chapter two. Perhaps the most obvious has been in clothing attire, which represents and underpins Muslim identity.

Similarly, Dhofier makes the comparison that some pesantren in Indonesia rival Islamic educational institutions of the Middle East and South Asia Dhofier Political Islam 62 some Muslims still express dissatisfaction with this arrangement and continue to fiml for the implementation of the Jakarta Charter Interview with Kyai Anwar Mu’rob 16 July Introduction 6 district, and thousands more throughout the country. General Election Results in Lamongan Table 5.


The struggles within each social field are not economic, but have unique characteristics stemming from those fields that involve social relationships. He explains that the movement lacks support from the masses and the powerful political parties.

Reproducing Political Islam in Java: The Role of

This is a form of symbolic capital which allows him denamyar express his opinions and beliefs to remote and metropolitan audiences. His History of Modern Indonesia since c. Pesantren and Affiliated Organisations Inrecords regarding religious parent organisation for pesantren are as follows: The field places those in subordinate positions against those in superordinate positions that struggle for a position in a field.

The symbolic capital is embedded in the reproduction of the social order Bourdieu Bourdieu emphasised that ideology is not a given but requires active construction, contending that most everyday practices would not be possible without misrecognition of their objective interests Swartz The seventeenth century saw the rise of Makassar, as well as Minangkabau and Mataram.

In the general election, PKB attained Failure at the ballot box is one of the factors in Islamic party fractiousness causing internal disputes over the direction of the party, in-fighting and even breakaway groups who believe that politics should be more Islamic.

Using this, we can analyse the pesantren system since kyai preserve cultural mxn, practices and other paraphernalia of the Javanese and Islamic world, as well as NU and Muhammadiyah identities.

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Some scholars, such as Hefner Consequently, Islamic leaders and kyai are granted a privileged position in the Indonesian umat. Participant observation provided a detailed insight into the pesantren system, which was complemented with empirical data from election results and a survey to assess the voting habits of Lamongan residents.

Aliran, or streams, in the political sense refers to the ideologicalcultural identification separated along Muslim santri devout Muslim and Javanist abangan nominal Muslim lines Ricklefs Bourdieu was an influential and imaginative author whose writings encompassed studies on Algerian peasant life, sociological research on education and culture, as well as systematic reflection on language and its role in the reproduction of social life.


Using data collected from the survey conducted in East Java, at Pesantren Karangasem, 88 per cent of santri and 93 per cent of their parents identified with Muhammadiyah.

An individual from an NU background, for instance, will have acquired dispositions that are different in particular ways from those acquired by individuals who were brought up in a Muhammadiyah milieu. The political culture is confounded by the fact that many parties, including PKB and PAN, maintain the status quo of a basic commitment to and recognition of religion in state affairs, as stipulated in the first clause of the state ideology Pancasila. Bupati assume more control over the district bureaucracy, including taxes, budgets, local services, as well as elements of health and education.

The policy failed, as did its overall campaign, fiom showed no particular direction of the party, combined with competition from the other Islamic parties and lacking a high profile leader, PPP performed poorly in the legislative elections. Chapter Outline Chapter two examines the theory, approach, and methodology used during research. Democratisation has shown that Muslim identity and Islamic values are salient and influence how politics is conducted.

Reproducing Political Islam in Java: The Role of

Kyai are able to provide religious credibility and prestige to candidates and politicians, and those they choose to support are to a certain extent based on party principles and ideology.

At the same time, governments and politicians will continue to accommodate Muslim aspirations because of the appeal of Islamic vote and because they have an obligation to kan in state affairs according to Pancasila.

This might suggest that some members of the Javanese elite within Majapahit converted to Islam during the height of this Hindu-Buddhist state, and that the Javanese interior denqnyar have adopted Islam before the coastal areas. A process of reform achieved principally through education and dakwah.