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As John Armstrong points out, this was to alter significantly in the modern world. The immediate outcome of these reforms was, of course, a further disruption of the existing relations and certainties, and hence also of identity Hroch Others tend to identify the sectarians with remnants of the Khazars because they had not heard of the Talmud before, but they liked the prayers Schur One of the reasons for the emancipation sentiments had to do with the government’s anti-Semitic policies Miller Smith points to Greeks, Armenians, Jews, Perians, Chinese and Japanese as to examples of ethnic continuity, since, despite massive cultural changes over the centuries, certain key identifying components — name, language, customs, religious community and territorial associations — were broadly maintained and reproduced for millennia. The national sentiment reflected this new conception.

However, in Harviainen’s opinion, even if we consider that the epigraph is a later work, the story described in it might contain true local legends, i. They speculated about the early settlement of non-Rabbanite Jewish communities on the peninsula and about the non-Talmudic probably also non-Karaite character of Khazarian Judaism in Crimea. Glorifying national history and searching for more ancient or glorious ancestors have been a part of many national movements. Nationalism with a positive connotation is associated with the following: The upholder of these new values — the nation — had to be defined by stable and unchangeable features. The Karaite movement is similar to the sort of national movements where an ethnic group has never had either its own statehood or its own ruling class e. Second, Anderson considered that print capitalism gave a new security to language, which is in the long run helped to build that image of antiquity so central to the subjective idea of the nation. Through the Middle Ages, the Karaites considered theirs the oldest and truest and hence the only correct interpretation of Pentateuch, despite the attacks of Rabbanite scholars, who branded them heretics, though they did not cease to consider them Jews.

The concept of identity is often used in contemporary politics and scholarship but it is hard to determine. Boundaries also designate which ethnic categories are available dim individual identification at a particular time and place.

Thus, he argues that specific nations are the product of older, often pre-modern ethnic ties and ethno-histories. Although the Karaites have never made such demands probably because of their small numberthey can still be compared to certain national minority movements.

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In the religious phase, beginning in the 16 th century, Protestantism and the Counter-Reformation expanded literacy across the spread of each vernacular language and downward across middling classes. Presently, their uniqueness is even more intriguing because of their dkm ethno-cultural identity: Hall, one reason why Gellner’s theory is not a truly universal one is that it fails to explain the very first emergence of nationalism tureckj 18th-century Britain and France.

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For instance, Siddiki, Paltineanu and Hoyo find it necessary to engage with nationalist ideology to understand the motives of national awakeners. He wrote that before the full emergence of nations and nationalism, there were two ‘proto-national’ phases in Europe: He writes that such movements are recurrent.

This study is based on a non-essentialist approach to identity, according to which collective identities are fluid and constantly reconstructed over time See, e.

It still exists by this name today see Appendix B.

Despite the fact that questions about the authenticity of the documents provoked debates quite turrecki, which still continue, they dramatically changed the fate of the Eastern European Karaites.

He links groups of the past with modern nations. However, rarely did the critique of Russian society expand to a critique of imperialism. Another explanation that he emphasised was the influence of romanticism. As Doom Armstrong points out, this was to alter significantly in the modern world.

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In entering the field of politics, national movements had to take into account that they would be confronted with persecution as cited in Periwal Hroch evaluates conditions in which the decision in favour of a new national identity was taken. He considers that in Central and Eastern Europe with its political basis and platform being in most cases a multi-ethnic empire — the Russian, Habsburg, or Ottoman — inhabited by many non- ruling ethnic groups, a different type of national movement was dominant.

Politics concerned identities as well as interests, deepening the emotions they could mobilise as cited in Periwal Based on the constructivism approach, the non-essentialist perspective on identity, including To shopping cart metaphor in the construction of ethnic identity, and ethno-symbolism theory, I analyse such defining points for the construction of a Karaite ethnic identity tii each of the studied historical periods as mentalities how Karaites identify themselves — views on their origin, ethnic belonging, etc.

He gave a detailed analysis on the history and changing identity of the Karaites in Galicia in his doctoral thesis — The Karaites of Galica.

Some intellectuals emphasised the ethnic nature of identity. Intensive efforts by politicians, journalists, literary figures, philologists, folklorists and historians led during the 19 th and early 20th centuries to the emergence of a group of East Slav dialects as ‘Ukrainian’, of certain South Slav dialects as ‘Macedonian’, and of ‘Slovak’ as a major West Slav language as cited in Periwal Inthere were 3, Karaites living in the Russian Empire with 2, Karaites living in Crimea. Indeed, each faction claimed to represent the most authentic manifestation of Judaism.

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Consequently, the Karaim language has almost become extinct. Later, inKaraites in the Russian Empire did not fail to mention the precedent Harviainen a: It was at this level that the demand for self- determination emerged. We dress turecku Poles. See a critical analysis of the theory on the conversion of the Khazars into Karaite Judaism in Freund The same can be said of the younger in comparison with the older generation.

We all Karaites are descendants of one ancient Jewish tribe, which settled in Crimea more than four hundred centuries ago, and with other Crimean peoples became subjects of the blessed state of Your Imperial Highness. tudecki

In the 2nd half of the 19 th century and the beginning of the 20th, the idea found support in Eastern Europe and Russia, especially among leaders of the peripheral ethnic groups of the former multiethnic Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian flim with a central administration.

It is the attachments and associations, rather than residence in or possession of the land that matters for ethnic identification. Russian nationalists could at once embrace the entirety of their unmistakably multinational empire, and did so with singular devotion. What is new in this work? He reminds that every historian recognises that such expression for example, in Theodore Herzl’s Zionism and the Armenian Hunchak party emerged only during the late 19 th-century as cited Periwal The national sentiment reflected this new conception.

Tl book continues to be valuable. Here, as well, we must differentiate between two levels: Eventually, it has been finalised and I am happy to express my words of gratitude to all those who accompanied me on the bumpy road. It analyses the construction of the Karaite identity according to the theory of constructivism.